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The canonical inauguration of the Immaculée-Conception parish was held in June 1921, soon after the incorporation of the town of Kapuskasing. The Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate were entrusted with the new parish. In 1921, with the approval of the bishop, the Oblate Fathers purchased a local store named Chamandy and converted it into a church and a presbytery. The first parish priest was Oliva Paquette, who was responsible for the sixty catholic families in the area.
Because of the growing number of Catholics moving to Kapuskasing due to the rapid expansion of the forest industry, the parish had to be relocated. The construction of a new church and a new presbytery began in 1923. On June 15, 1924, Bishop Joseph Hallé blessed the church of the parish, which is still operational today.
The parish was initially in charge of French-language education in Kapuskasing. The first primary school was officially opened in 1921 in the original presbytery. It was attended by 18 boys and 20 girls, numbers that doubled the following year. The Sisters of Charity of Ottawa (Grey Nuns) and the Brothers of the Sacred Heart took over the education of students in 1926 and 1944 respectively.
Because of a continued population growth, three new churches were built starting in 1954: Notre-Dame-de-la-Paix, Notre-Dame-des-Victoires and St. Patrick's, for the English-speaking. A primary school was associated with each of the parishes.
In 1988, diocesan clergy took over the parish. Father Jean-Guy Mailloux became the first secular priest of the church. The church underwent major renovations in 1927, 1938, 1949, 1956, 1958 and, finally, in 1993.
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