Collection C 11 - J.C.B. and E.C. Horwood collection

Title and statement of responsibility area

Title proper

J.C.B. and E.C. Horwood collection

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Reference code

CA ON00009 C 11

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Statement of scale (cartographic)

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Statement of scale (architectural)

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Dates of creation area


  • 1750 - 1975 (Creation)

Physical description area

Physical description

32,738 architectural drawings
8 technical drawings
4 portfolios (201 drawings)
1 volume (14 plates of drawings)
1 volume (205 drawings, 3 photographs, 1 magazine clippings)
2 sketchbooks
41 volumes of textual records
10.8 metres of textual records
656 photographs : black and white prints
7 photographs : black and white negatives
1 portfolio of prints (100 images)
4 prints
12 prints of plates
5 posters
11 maps
15 plans
1 pantograph in a wooden case
1 wooden case
1 leather business card holder
1 wooden letter writing table
1 copper engraved plate

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Archival description area

Name of creator


Biographical history

J.C.B. Horwood was a Toronto architect.

J.C.B. Horwood was born in Quidi Vidi, Newfoundland, on March 19, 1864, the son of a carpenter and contractor. The family moved to Toronto when J.C.B. was 4 years old. He trained at the architectural firms of Langley, Langley and Burke, in Toronto (from 1882 to 1887) and Clinton and Russell in New York City (1889-1894).

He partnered with Edmund Burke in 1894. Their partnership, Burke and Horwood, became Burke, Horwood and White when Murray A. White joined it in 1908, then became Horwood and White when Edmund Burke died in 1919. The firm retained its name after White's death in 1935.

Horwood and his associates became known for the Chicago style steel-frame construction and fire-proof materials they adopted for large commercial buildings. Their projects included office buildings, retail stores, sanatoria and residences. Major projects included various Toronto Baptist and Methodist churches, the Toronto West-end and Central YMCA buildings, various Hudson Bay Company department stores throughout Canada, as well as additions to Osgoode Hall and renovation of the Robert Simpson Company department store in Toronto.

J.C.B Horwood was a Charter member of the Arts and Letters Club (Toronto), as well as a member of the Toronto Architectural Sketch Club, the Toronto Architectural 18 Club and the Toronto Society of Architects. A proponent of the "national idea" in the development of a Canadian style, he favoured artistic training and freedom in the training of architects. Horwood was also recognized as an expert on structural engineering problems, including drainage and foundation works.

J.C.B. Horwood died in Toronto in 1938. His son E.C. Horwood succeeded him as principal in the firm.

Name of creator


Biographical history

E.C. Horwood was a Toronto architect, active from 1927 to 1975.

E.C. Horwood was born in Toronto in July 1900, the son of architect J.C.B. Horwood. He studied architecture at the University of Toronto (1919-1925) while working at his father's firm, Horwood and White, then completed his studies in Paris, at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and Fontainebleau School of Fine Arts (1925-1927).

He joined Horwood and White in 1927, becoming senior partner following his father's death in 1938. E.C. Horwood began winding up the firm in 1969, but continued to do some work under its name until his retirement in 1975.

E.C. Horwood's projects included schools, churches, office buildings, hospitals and residences. His main projects included the renovation of the Robert Simpson Company and the John Northway and Sons department stores, buildings for the Children's Aid Society and the University of Toronto, and improvements to Canadian General Electric plants in Toronto.

E.C. Horwood died at Mimico on October 22, 1984.

Custodial history

The J.C.B. and E.C. Horwood Collection was assembled over the years from four separate sources relating mostly to Toronto-based architects.

The oldest source is the practices of Frederic W. Cumberland, Cumberland and Ridout, Cumberland and Storm, and William G. Storm. This accumulation was inherited by architect Edmund Burke on the death of Storm in 1892.

The second source is the firm of Gundry and Langley, and the successor firms of Henry Langley; Langley, Langley and Burke; Langley and Burke; and Langley and Langley. The firm had offices at 15 Toronto Street. At some point, either around the time of Burke's departure from the Langley, Langley and Burke firm in 1892, or on the death of Henry Langley in 1907, a certain quantity of the accumulated records of the Langleys was acquired by Burke or by Burke and Horwood.

The third source is the firm of Grant and Dick, which was established in 1874. When Grant withdrew from the firm in 1876, Dick continued alone. In 1901, upon his departure, drawings were transferred to Burke and Horwood.

The successor firms - Burke; Burke and Horwood; Burke, Horwood and White; and Horwood and White - accumulated drawings from the above sources and created their own until the winding up of Horwood and White which started in 1969. These firms were located at 28 Toronto St. until October 1913. The following month they moved to 229 Yonge St. in the Ryrie Building. There is also a small quantity of post-1969 work, possibly by E.C. Horwood.

With the demise of Horwood and White, the bulk of the Collection was moved to the summer home of E. C. Horwood near Georgian Bay and stored in a barn. The remainder was stored in Horwood's Mimico residence. Horwood donated the Collection to the Archives of Ontario in six stages between 1978 and 1981.
Additional records were donated by James R. Horwood in 2002, 2004, 2005, and 2007-2010.

Scope and content

Collection consists of architectural drawings and other materials generated or accumulated by J.C.B. and E.C. Horwood during their training and practice as architects within a succession of firms and work places. It includes a large amount of material from other preceding or contemporary architects and practices. These other materials came into the possession of the Horwoods' firm either through amalgamations of architectural practices, planned succession transfers from retiring architects, inheritance, or through a deliberate process by J.C.B. Horwood of acquiring precedent drawings as reference sources.

The collection contains the work of about eighty-five firms, which existed in the period 1829-1975. The projects largely emphasize Toronto, since most of the firms were based in that city. Nearly two-thirds of the series document Toronto architecture. However, the collection also contains some representation from other areas in Ontario, including Brantford, Brampton, Forest Hill Village, Gravenhurst, Guelph, Hamilton, Lorne Park, Mimico, Muskoka, Woodstock, York and North York Townships. There is also some material for the British Isles, Europe, and the United States, as well as from other parts of Canada. Included also are architectural artifacts, such as Frederic W. Cumberland's pantograph and William G. Storm's wooden writing table.

The records document many building types including schools, churches, government or institutional buildings, department stores, commercial and industrial facilities, bridges, skating rinks, funerary structures, and private residences.

The collection contains a wide variety of architectural record types, including mechanical and engineering drawings, survey drawings, site plans, water-colour perspectives, maps, and photographs. There is a vast quantity of masonry sketch work for a few of the projects, such as Osgoode Hall and University College. The collection also includes prints and engravings used as reference material by some of the architects.

The collection also includes a large number of textual items such as: written specifications, a small quantity of correspondence, accounting sheets, job ledgers, notes, building trade and advertising brochures, reports, daily record showing time spent each day by draftsmen, printed photo-mechanical illustrations, certificates and minutes of architectural societies, and some contracts.

For a more detailed description, use this link to the Archives of Ontario's descriptive database:

Notes area

Physical condition

Some of these records are damaged.

Immediate source of acquisition


Language of material

Script of material

Location of originals

Availability of other formats

Digital images of some of these records are available for online research in the Archives of Ontario Visual Database.

Restrictions on access

Some records are closed for conservation reasons. Consult the individual series descriptions for details.

Terms governing use, reproduction, and publication

Copyright has been transferred to Archives of Ontario by the donor. There are no restrictions on reproduction for research or private study. If you wish to use any of this material other than for research and private study, submit a Request for Permission to Publish, Exhibit or Broadcast Form.

Finding aids

Please consult the individual series descriptions for retrieval information and/or itemized listings for a particular project.

For a more detailed description, use this link to the Archives of Ontario's descriptive database:

Associated materials

Associated material in other institutions:

In March 1922 the firm of Horwood and White donated to the University of Toronto ca. 300 architectural drawings, dated [1842-1922], pertaining to work done on University buildings by the firm and its predecessors. These records consisted of part of the design work done by Thomas Young and Cumberland and Storm for University College; and various works by D.B. Dick, including Moss Hall alterations, Biological Buildings, New Building for Museum, Alterations and Restorations of University College, Students Union Gymnasium, New Library Building, Chemical Laboratory, and the Old Wycliffe College Building. This part of the fonds is now held by the University of Toronto Archives in their Horwood and White Collection (B65-0028).

There is also a February 1984 oral history record of David Rudkin's interview with E.C. Horwood (B88-0040).

The Langley Collection in the Baldwin Room at the Toronto Reference Library contains 218 architectural drawings and three job registers for the various Langley partnerships, from the 1860s with Gundry and Langley, until 1925 under the firm of Langley and Howland.

Works by the following architects in the Horwood Collection are also represented in the John G. Howard Papers held in the Baldwin Room: John George Howard, William Thomas and Thomas Young.

A library of approximately 200 books belonging to William G. Storm is held at Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library at the University of Toronto. The collection known as the Storm Collection has a printed catalogue, Ontario Association of Architects centennial collection: [bibliography] / prepared by Marianna May Richardson. [Toronto, Ont.: Ontario Association of Architects, 1990].

Related material at the Archives of Ontario:

F 4359 Langley and Howland fonds; F 1132 Cumberland family fonds and F 4418 George W. Gouinlock fonds.

The Archives of Ontario Library holds a copy of Sweet's Catalogue of Building Construction, 10th edition, published in 1915, that was used in the Burke, Horwood and White architectural office.

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General note

Source of supplied title proper: At the request of the donor the Collection is formally known as the J.C.B. and E.C. Horwood Collection.

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Feb. 9/12.

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