Title and statement of responsibility area
Cullen Gardens and Miniature Village fonds
General material designation
- Multiple media
Other title information
Title statements of responsibility
- Source of title proper: Title based on contents of the fonds.
Level of description
CA ON00329 F42
Edition statement of responsibility
Class of material specific details area
Statement of scale (cartographic)
Statement of projection (cartographic)
Statement of coordinates (cartographic)
Statement of scale (architectural)
Issuing jurisdiction and denomination (philatelic)
Dates of creation area
- Cullen Gardens Inc.
Physical description area
3,123 photographs : col. slides ; 35 mm
2,220 photographs : col.
80 photographs : col. and b&w negatives ; 35 mm on 15 x 3.5 cm sheet
58 cm of textual records
48 audio cassettes
37 video cassettes
34 technical drawings
5 architectural drawings
1 pin : metal
Publisher's series area
Title proper of publisher's series
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Numbering within publisher's series
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Archival description area
Name of creator
In 1965, Leonard Cullen, owner of Weall & Cullen Nurseries Ltd., a garden supply and landscaping business in the Greater Toronto Area, purchased 150 acres of land on Taunton Road West in Whitby in order to establish a recreational garden for tourists and a Weall & Cullen farm property. 100 acres of property was designated for Weall & Cullen, while the remaining 50-acre parcel was set aside for the recreational garden. Cullen developed these 50 acres over the following years, adding a miniature village of Southern Ontario homes built to 1/12th scale, restaurant, gift shop, tea room, mini golf course, washrooms, rockery, paths, and various flower beds. On December 30, 1971, Cullen officially incorporated his park and village as Cullen Gardens of Cedar Valley Incorporated. This name was later changed to Cullen Gardens Incorporated. On May 30, 1980, the site was opened to the public as Cullen Gardens and Miniature Village.
The company specialized in seasonal floral displays, special events for holidays (particularly its winter Festival of Lights), live performances, and its miniature village, which initially featured 600 hand-built miniature people, 150 vehicles, and 80 structures. Cullen Gardens was open from late spring to early January of each year. In peak season and at the height of its popularity, Cullen Gardens employed around 150 individuals. The organization retained a full-time staff of 30 individuals year-round and hired seasonal employees from May to December.
In 1981, Cullen Gardens Inc. purchased Hood Park, an 88-acre tract of land that was also located on Taunton Road West (Lot 28, Concession 3). The company donated 17 acres of this property to the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec in the mid-1980s for the establishment of a Baptist Leadership Education Centre. The remainder of the Hood Park property was sold to a developer.
In 1986, Leonard Cullen paid to move the Lynde House Museum, a Georgian home built in Whitby between 1812-1814 for the Lynde family, to Cullen Gardens. Staff renovated the house and added artifacts and life-sized animatronic figures representing the Lynde family. The museum re-opened in June 1988. In subsequent years, Cullen Gardens also paid to transport five historic homes from the Greater Toronto Area to the site. These homes, which had originally been slated for demolition, were intended for a new tourist attraction called the Prettiest Street in Ontario. Leonard Cullen hoped to install luxury boutiques and bed and breakfast accommodations in the houses, but due to financial constraints and rising insurance costs, this vision was never realized.
In 1986, Leonard Cullen's son, Peter began working as a groundskeeper at Cullen Gardens. In 1988, Susan Green, Leonard Cullen's daughter, became involved in the administration of the business, particularly the management of shops and food services. Susan Green and Peter Cullen also began acquiring shares from Leonard Cullen.
In 1987, Cullen Gardens added a new fine dining restaurant, which was initially called the Garden Gate Restaurant and eventually became Cullen Gardens Restaurant. In the same year, Cullen Gardens created banquet rooms, a tower lobby entrance, and a miniature cottage country. In May, these new attractions were opened to the public in an especially momentous ceremony, which was attended by Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario Lincoln Alexander.
In spite of such additions, Cullen Gardens struggled to remain profitable throughout the 1990s and early 2000s. The organization's challenges during this time included a 1989 fire that destroyed the original restaurant and gift shop, rising insurance costs, and the introduction of the federal Goods and Services Tax. By 1999, Susan Green purchased Peter Cullen's shares and became president of the organization, as well as sole owner of the Cullen Gardens property. In an effort to attract new visitors, Cullen Gardens renovated its fine dining restaurant and re-opened it as a casual dining facility (the Grill and Grape Restaurant). This initiative was unsuccessful.
In January 2006, Susan Green sold the Cullen Gardens property and buildings to the Corporation of the Town of Whitby. The miniature village collection was purchased by the City of Oshawa, who in turn sold it to Niagara Parks in 2011.
Cullen Gardens and Miniature Village records remained in the custody of Susan Green, company owner, until 2006, when they were transferred to the Archives at Whitby Public Library.
Scope and content
The fonds consists of operational and commemorative records related to Cullen Gardens and Miniature Village. Many operational records were created as Leonard Cullen and other staff developed and advertised the organization's site in Whitby, Ontario. Commemorative records preserve views of the site's grounds, seasonal displays, building interiors, and events. Additionally, the fonds contains some personal records from Leonard Cullen, most of which pertain to his involvement in the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec and the Baptist Leadership Education Centre in Whitby. The fonds consists of four series: Site Maintenance and Expansion; Personal Writings and Baptist Community Involvement of Leonard Cullen; Promotions; and Photographs.
Immediate source of acquisition
The majority of records that arrived at the archives were stored by the donor in titled files and physically grouped by media type (e.g. textual records, audio recordings, etc.). The archivist preserved this physical order for the majority of the fonds and kept the donor's original file titles where they existed.
Additionally, the archivist took cues from the received physical order when developing the intellectual order of the fonds. Some series were determined on the basis of media format, while others were created from grouped records of similar business functions.
Language of material
Script of material
Location of originals
Availability of other formats
Restrictions on access
Terms governing use, reproduction, and publication
Some records in the fonds—mainly those created by third parties—are protected under copyright. Permission to reproduce copyrighted materials must be obtained from the copyright holder(s). See archivist for details.
File lists are available for each series. See online series descriptions for further details.
No further accruals are expected.
A list of deaccessioned items and records is available. See archivist for details.
Standard number area
Name access points
- Weall & Cullen Nurseries Ltd. (Subject)
Genre access points
Description record identifier
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Dates of creation, revision and deletion
Created by Gillian Dunks in December 2017.